• Welcome to Module B


    This course is being shared as the result of grant from the National Science Foundation as implemented through Hofstra University. 

    See NOTES for important information about using this course. (Delete from after Welcome to here in your installation).


    If you look back in history, there was a time when everything was made by hand. This required a great deal of time and craftsmanship to make only one tool or item. Machine tools have played a major role in all historic technological advances in manufacturing.

    Without machine tools, there would be none of the important products that our society relies on every day. Items such as cars, airplanes cell phones or even computers. In the world of manufacturing and specifically precision manufacturing there is a family of machines utilized in the majority of all metal working. These machines are designed specifically to drill, mill, turn, grind and form metals or plastics. Each of these has very unique advantages and is designed to hold extremely close tolerances in each area of specialization.

    Very rarely can a manufacturer produce parts solely on one type of machine tool. In today’s advanced technologies in medical, aerospace and defense industries, the capabilities of machine tools are critical to a company’s success. Also, in a world of constant global competitiveness, the country with the most advanced machine tools will have a strongest economy.

    Perform research online on how the economy is affected by levels of manufacturing. You only have 15 minutes to complete this assignment. You will return to the class discussion and share the information from your research.

  • Section 4 Precision Measurement

    Ever since people began building and manufacturing, the ability to measure was critical to their success. As technology advanced, measurement and specifically precision measurement determined whether engineering designs would be successful or guarantee failure. The term precision suggests extreme accuracy and in measurement this translates into an entirely new universe. When designing something such as a part for an airplane or an engine, the allowable tolerance of any dimension determines how accurate a dimension needs to be. For example: If a part must be made to a length of 4.25” in length. If the design calls for a tolerance of +/- .100”, this is considered a semi precise tolerance. But, if the same part now has a tolerance of +/-.0001,” this would be considered precision measurement and require very specialized measuring tools.

    This use of such extreme precision in measurement is called metrology. Metrology, the science of precision measurement, requires a huge variety of tools that are designed for specific tasks. The designs of these tools are directly related to the measurement and tolerance that must be measured. The most basic of these tools are standard rulers or in the precise world they are known as scales. These scale come in many different sizes and in many different graduations. A scale could be 6” long or as long as 36.” The graduations can be in inch or metric measurements and in fractional or decimal graduations.

    In a manufacturing facility, there is always an inspection department. In this department, all precision dimensional inspections take place. The inspection process is critical to ensure product quality and reliability. In most cases, the customer requires certified records of the inspection and the technician to perform the process.

3.6 Forming TechnologiesSection 5 Computerization of the Manufacturing Process