• Welcome to Module B


    This course is being shared as the result of grant from the National Science Foundation as implemented through Hofstra University. 

    See NOTES for important information about using this course. (Delete from after Welcome to here in your installation).


    If you look back in history, there was a time when everything was made by hand. This required a great deal of time and craftsmanship to make only one tool or item. Machine tools have played a major role in all historic technological advances in manufacturing.

    Without machine tools, there would be none of the important products that our society relies on every day. Items such as cars, airplanes cell phones or even computers. In the world of manufacturing and specifically precision manufacturing there is a family of machines utilized in the majority of all metal working. These machines are designed specifically to drill, mill, turn, grind and form metals or plastics. Each of these has very unique advantages and is designed to hold extremely close tolerances in each area of specialization.

    Very rarely can a manufacturer produce parts solely on one type of machine tool. In today’s advanced technologies in medical, aerospace and defense industries, the capabilities of machine tools are critical to a company’s success. Also, in a world of constant global competitiveness, the country with the most advanced machine tools will have a strongest economy.

    Perform research online on how the economy is affected by levels of manufacturing. You only have 15 minutes to complete this assignment. You will return to the class discussion and share the information from your research.

  • Section 1 History of Manufacturing

    To manufacture is to use tools, machines and people to produce goods for use or sale or trade. In early history, all forms of manufacturing were by hand. In boatbuilding, woodworking, stone shaping or blacksmithing this act of producing items required hand skills and hand tools. Throughout history, manufactured items evolved from basic forms such as arrowheads to weapons, and cutting tools from metal to the mass production of airplanes and automobiles. In all manufacturing processes, raw materials are used to create products that improve the lives of people all over the world. Many products immediately go to the end user to be used in everyday activities such as a broom, a pan for cooking or a paint brush. But many products are used to manufacture other products. When metal, wood, plastic or other materials are used as raw materials, they need to be cut, formed, sanded, polished or molded into shapes with the use of other products that were manufactured. Some examples are:

    • Saws for cutting metal or wood are made of steel.
    • Pliers used for gripping and bending materials are made from steel.
    • Sandpaper for sanding wood is made from fine silicon (sand) which is adhered to paper.
    • An ice cube tray is made from plastic and is specially formed to make and release ice cubes once frozen.

    Manufacturing also requires the ability to produce one, 100 or even 100 million of a specific product. This creates different categories of manufacturing.

    • Customized production
    • Batch production
    • Continuous production
Section 2 Design: Manufacturing and Sustainability