Topic outline

  • Welcome to Module B


    Welcome!


    This course is being shared as the result of grant from the National Science Foundation as implemented through Hofstra University. 

    See NOTES for important information about using this course. (Delete from after Welcome to here in your installation).


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    If you look back in history, there was a time when everything was made by hand. This required a great deal of time and craftsmanship to make only one tool or item. Machine tools have played a major role in all historic technological advances in manufacturing.

    Without machine tools, there would be none of the important products that our society relies on every day. Items such as cars, airplanes cell phones or even computers. In the world of manufacturing and specifically precision manufacturing there is a family of machines utilized in the majority of all metal working. These machines are designed specifically to drill, mill, turn, grind and form metals or plastics. Each of these has very unique advantages and is designed to hold extremely close tolerances in each area of specialization.

    Very rarely can a manufacturer produce parts solely on one type of machine tool. In today’s advanced technologies in medical, aerospace and defense industries, the capabilities of machine tools are critical to a company’s success. Also, in a world of constant global competitiveness, the country with the most advanced machine tools will have a strongest economy.

    Perform research online on how the economy is affected by levels of manufacturing. You only have 15 minutes to complete this assignment. You will return to the class discussion and share the information from your research.

  • Section 1 History of Manufacturing

    To manufacture is to use tools, machines and people to produce goods for use or sale or trade. In early history, all forms of manufacturing were by hand. In boatbuilding, woodworking, stone shaping or blacksmithing this act of producing items required hand skills and hand tools. Throughout history, manufactured items evolved from basic forms such as arrowheads to weapons, and cutting tools from metal to the mass production of airplanes and automobiles. In all manufacturing processes, raw materials are used to create products that improve the lives of people all over the world. Many products immediately go to the end user to be used in everyday activities such as a broom, a pan for cooking or a paint brush. But many products are used to manufacture other products. When metal, wood, plastic or other materials are used as raw materials, they need to be cut, formed, sanded, polished or molded into shapes with the use of other products that were manufactured. Some examples are:

    • Saws for cutting metal or wood are made of steel.
    • Pliers used for gripping and bending materials are made from steel.
    • Sandpaper for sanding wood is made from fine silicon (sand) which is adhered to paper.
    • An ice cube tray is made from plastic and is specially formed to make and release ice cubes once frozen.

    Manufacturing also requires the ability to produce one, 100 or even 100 million of a specific product. This creates different categories of manufacturing.

    • Customized production
    • Batch production
    • Continuous production
    Glossary: 1Lessons: 3Quizzes: 2Folder: 1Page: 1
  • Section 2 Design: Manufacturing and Sustainability

    People all over the world are brainstorming new ideas for processes and products. This entrepreneurial spirit is how so many advancements have made our lives better. But, in most cases ideas or products would simply be too expensive to produce or would create a very negative environmental impact. When products are in the design phase, it is important to consider both of these issues. This is called design for manufacturability and sustainability. The two terms have separate definitions and purposes but are high intertwined with each other.

    Design for manufacturability is the engineer’s ability to design products in such a way that they are easy to manufacture. This basic concept exists in most engineering disciplines, but of course the details differ widely depending on the manufacturing technology. This important skill for the engineer is to focus not only on the design aspect of a part but also on the producibility or the effort it would require manufacturing the product.

    Designing for sustainability refers to the environmental impact of the design. Environmental impact of any industry has become a very common issue in our world and any time that is in question it impacts the social, economic and ecological implications. The intention of sustainable design is to limit negative environmental impact completely through skillful, sensitive design. Another goal of sustainability is to create products that will impact the behavior and views of the individuals that will use it through a renewed interest in environmental issues.

    Glossary: 1Lessons: 3Quiz: 1Folder: 1Page: 1
  • Section 3 Machining Technologies

    If you look back in history, there was a time when everything was made by hand. This required a great deal of time and craftsmanship to make only one tool or item. Machine tools have played a major role in all historic technological advances in manufacturing. Without machine tools, there would be none of the important products that our society relies on every day items such as cars, airplanes cell phones or even computers. In the world of manufacturing and specifically precision manufacturing, there is a family of machines utilized in the majority of all metal working. These machines are designed specifically to drill, mill, turn, grind and form metals or plastics. Each of these has very unique advantages and is designed to hold extremely close tolerances in each area of specialization. Very rarely can a manufacturer produce parts solely on one type of machine tool. In today’s advanced technologies in medical, aerospace and defense industries, the capabilities of machine tools are critical to a company’s success. Also, in a world of constant global competitiveness, the country with the most advanced machine tools will also have a strongest economy.

    Glossary: 1Quiz: 1Pages: 2
  • 3.1 Sawing Technologies

    Lesson: 1Assignments: 2Page: 1
  • 3.2 Drilling Technologies

    Lesson: 1Assignment: 1Pages: 3
  • 3.3 Turning Technologies

    Lesson: 1Assignments: 2Pages: 4
  • 3.4 Milling Technologies

    Lesson: 1Assignments: 2Pages: 3
  • 3.5 Abrasive Technologies

    Lesson: 1Assignments: 2Pages: 5
  • 3.6 Forming Technologies

    Lesson: 1Assignments: 2Pages: 4
  • Section 4 Precision Measurement

    Ever since people began building and manufacturing, the ability to measure was critical to their success. As technology advanced, measurement and specifically precision measurement determined whether engineering designs would be successful or guarantee failure. The term precision suggests extreme accuracy and in measurement this translates into an entirely new universe. When designing something such as a part for an airplane or an engine, the allowable tolerance of any dimension determines how accurate a dimension needs to be. For example: If a part must be made to a length of 4.25” in length. If the design calls for a tolerance of +/- .100”, this is considered a semi precise tolerance. But, if the same part now has a tolerance of +/-.0001,” this would be considered precision measurement and require very specialized measuring tools.

    This use of such extreme precision in measurement is called metrology. Metrology, the science of precision measurement, requires a huge variety of tools that are designed for specific tasks. The designs of these tools are directly related to the measurement and tolerance that must be measured. The most basic of these tools are standard rulers or in the precise world they are known as scales. These scale come in many different sizes and in many different graduations. A scale could be 6” long or as long as 36.” The graduations can be in inch or metric measurements and in fractional or decimal graduations.

    In a manufacturing facility, there is always an inspection department. In this department, all precision dimensional inspections take place. The inspection process is critical to ensure product quality and reliability. In most cases, the customer requires certified records of the inspection and the technician to perform the process.

    Glossary: 1Lesson: 1Quiz: 1Folder: 1Page: 1
  • Section 5 Computerization of the Manufacturing Process

    The introduction of the computer into the world of manufacturing was the beginning of a metamorphic change that dramatically changed the world. The computer ushered in amazing advancements in engineering, construction and manufacturing that ultimately made the standard of living for people far better. The computer could perform complex calculations faster than people; it took the place of pencil and paper drawings and could automate any type of machine used in manufacturing. The process of research & development for any engineering project could now be accomplished in much less time and much greater accuracy. This capability now allowed the manufacturing process to initiate faster and shipment of products to customers sooner than ever. The financial advantages were also improved for companies by increased profits and customer satisfaction.

    Glossary: 1Lesson: 1Quiz: 1Folder: 1Page: 1